Mango is a clean food that is loved by many people, consumption of mangoes has increased in recent years. Growing mango is the right direction for households with a large land area, good rotation.
So is the technique of growing mango really complicated? What should be noted during the care of mango trees? In this article, #wikiohana will find out more with you!
1. What should be prepared to grow mango?
1.1 What month should mango be planted?
Mango planting season: The early rainy season is the best time to plant mangoes. However, if people can take initiative of water for irrigation, they can be planted at any time of the year. Avoid planting before heavy winds, or frost, …
Mango planting density: Planting density ranges from 300 to 500 stumps / ha. Equivalent distance is 8x8m or 10x10m. In the first time, people can plant thicker densities, thinning after big trees. Or early time intercropped with legumes to increase income.
1.2 Selection of mango varieties
Currently on the market there are many different varieties of mango. Farmers should choose varieties with high preferred output, good price and long-lasting preservation. Some varieties of mango can be mentioned as:
- Taiwanese mango
- Australian Mango
- Thai Mango
- Hoa Loc mango
People can ask the seedling sales staff to advise more to have mango varieties suitable for local soil conditions.
1.3 Planting land requirements
In general, the mango tree is the same tree suitable for most types of soil in our country. Rainy and humid tropical climate is the main condition for the development of mango. However, mangoes are more suitable for yellow, red basalt soil, feralit soil and especially sandy soils.
The requirement of planting soil is to have at least 1.5m – 2m thick arable layer. Suitable pH ranges from 5.0 to 7.0.
In the case of the planted land, there is often heavy rain or flooding. People need to build beds and open ditches to help water drain quickly. The time of highest water rise must be 1m away from the base of the mango. If the plant is flooded for too long, the roots will gradually rot and the plant dies.
2. An effective guide to growing mango at home
2.1 Land preparation before planting
People need to clean up the grass and trash, plow the soil before planting. If the land was previously planted with other perennial crops, it is necessary to rest the soil for 6-12 months.
In the meantime, people can grow legumes. One part increases income, partly helps improve land.
Prepare the planting hole
People conduct digging holes with the size of 60x60x60cm. The distance of the pits is 8x8m or 10x10m. In each hole, basal fertilizing 20-30kg of decomposed manure + 0.1kg of potassium + 1kg of phosphorus + 0.5kg of lime powder. Proceed to mix with the topsoil and fill the hole.
The preparation of this planting hole should be done 1-2 months in advance. The purpose is to help the microbiota grow naturally, along with the nutrients that are promptly broken down and ready for plants to absorb.
Rivers, gardens or flood prone areas need to be filled with beds and ditches. Improve drainage before planting.
2.2 Planting mangoes from seedlings
– In the middle of the planting hole, we dig a larger hole with a diameter of about 10cm nursery. Use a knife or scissors to gently cut the plastic bag of the nursery to avoid breaking the nursery soil.
– Proceed to place the tree down in the center of the planting hole, so that the stump is equal to the ground. Do not plant too deeply, not good for the growth of the plant. Carry out filling in the surrounding soil, and higher at the base to avoid water stagnation at the base.
– After planting, farmers need to conduct fresh water to keep the base moist. At the same time, plug the fixed stakes close to the base and tie the trunk to the stake. In strong sunny weather, people need to keep straw, dead rice, … around the base to keep moisture.
3. Techniques to take care of mango properly
When plants are planted, watering is very important. Do not let the plant dry for too long, it is necessary to water the plant at least every 3 or 4 days. Time later, people can gradually stretch depending on weather conditions.
It is best to always make sure the stump is still moist enough, so that the plant can thrive. Avoid letting the tree dry for more than half a month, the tree will be weakened and dull.
In the following years (business phase), when the roots have grown big enough, farmers may not need to water. Only water if the weather lasts too long, like record sunsets.
3.2 Pruning the canopy and weeding the mango garden
After planting for a few months (usually 3 months), from the grafted buds there are 3 layers of leaves (3 buds) we proceed to brake the tops. From the braking position, there will be many new shoots growing, leaving only 3 of the strongest buds – called level 1. When each of these buds grows the next 3 leaves, we proceed to brake the second. For the third time, we stopped to let the tree grow naturally.
Every year, people proceed to remove the branches growing deep in the canopy, the old branches, the branches that grow close to the ground, … The pruning should be done after harvesting, and applying medicine to heal the scar right after pruning to protect the tree.
Because mango trees are planted at sparse spacing, the clearing under weeds often grows abundantly. In the early years, people need to conduct weeding regularly to limit the pathogens contained in the grass. As well as limiting competition for nutrition with mango trees.
3.3 Stimulate mango to flower and how to protect young fruit
Stimulate mango to flower early
The purpose of stimulating early flowering, is for early mango to be harvested. Avoid the situation that mangoes will depreciate in the main season rather than at the beginning of the season. Of course, if the garden owner is qualified as well as experienced to stimulate mango to flower early.
For old mango trees, people can water the mango once the mango has 1-2 leaves. As for mango trees, it is advisable to water the plants when the tree has 2-3 leaves.
Some growth inhibitors such as Paclobutrazol 10% can be used for irrigation. With a dosage of about 10cc / 5-10 liters of water, irrigate 1 meter of canopy diameter and water close to the base. Keep plants moist for about 20 days. 2 months later use Dola 02X or KNO solution.
Technology to protect flowers and young fruit
Preserving flowers and young fruit is important for high yields of the plant. Use one of the types of Pyrinex, Sago Super, Butyl to protect the first flower when the flower is 2-3cm long to help prevent aphids. When the flowers reach the maximum size, farmers need to spray the second time. After that, people need to stop spraying so that the pollinators come.
Also during this time, if the rain is heavy, especially the night rains, the next morning people need to shake the branches to reduce the flowers without pollination. Along with that is spraying fungicides as well as anthracnose (spray after it rains).
See also: Cymbidium care
3.4 Fertilizer techniques for mango trees
People can divide the growth process of mango into two phases: construction stage and business stage.
Construction phase: Using NPK fertilizer rich in phosphorus and nitrogen to stimulate the development of branches and roots. Implementation of fertilizing 2-4 times per year, and each time about 0.5 kg / root.
Business stage: Made to increase the amount of manure to 2-3kg / root / year. Divided into 2-3 times per year, and during the flowering stage, the amount of potassium needed to increase the amount of potassium to produce more fruit. In the case the previous years have good seasons, the following year farmers need to increase the amount of manure to 35-45%, to restore the physical condition of the plants.
4. Collecting and preserving mangoes
With each variety of mango has different harvesting time (can be harvested green or waiting to be ripe – depending on purpose). Most of them rely on experience and observation to carry out the mango harvest. Usually when ripe, the mango turns yellow and the fruit smells good.
Use specialized tools to harvest, and be sure to harvest the stem. The mango should not be allowed to fall from above, causing bruising – scratching and reducing the commercial value of the mango.
Along with that when moving away, should put mangoes into foam boxes and stack no more than 5 layers. Between each layer, it is necessary to add straw, paper or specialized tools to wrap fruit.
So #wikiohana together with people to learn techniques to grow mango properly. Along with that are notes in the process of caring, helping mangoes less pests and quick to harvest. Mango planting is a right direction for farmers to choose, a stable output and increasingly supported by the market.
Wish you all have a successful mango garden!
Updated June 26, 2020
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